PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF A PERSON IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPETENCY-BASED APPROACH (WITH THE USE OF LEGO
Автор: Дорожко І. І.   
11.02.2021
Завантажити Психологічний супровід

UDK 37.013.73: 392.3
                     I.I.Dorozhko, L.V.Turishcheva, E.E.Malykhina
Dorozhko I.I. – Head of the Department of Philosophical and Psychological Anthropology of H.S.Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Ця адреса електронної пошти приховується від різних спамерських та пошукових роботів. Щоб побачити її потрібно активувати java-script. , http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9339-7737, 067-91-92-155;
Turishcheva L.V. – Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophical and Psychological Anthropology of H.S.Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Ця адреса електронної пошти приховується від різних спамерських та пошукових роботів. Щоб побачити її потрібно активувати java-script. , http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3265-2666, 068-889-25-75;
Malykhina E.E. – Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophical and Psychological Anthropology of H.S.Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University,, Ця адреса електронної пошти приховується від різних спамерських та пошукових роботів. Щоб побачити її потрібно активувати java-script. , http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9236-4906, 067-369-42-96.

PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF A PERSON IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPETENCY-BASED APPROACH (WITH THE USE OF LEGO CONSTRUCTION)
The relevance of the research is preconditioned by the current needs in the educational space, the search for effective methods and techniques of pupils’ important competencies formation. The reformation of present-day education is accompanied by the introduction of new special forms of cognitive activity organization which have a specific purpose that is to create such learning conditions, under which a pupil will study successfully, develop his/her intellect and will be ready for creative self-realization. The educators are faced with a complicated task of forming an individual who is competent in various fields of activity. While being educated a child must obtain a certain set of characteristics, which will ensure his / her ability to find the way in a modern society, to quickly react to today’s requirements.
A lot of attention in scientific literature is paid to the peculiarities of organizing and conducting classes using LEGO. However, the problem of psychological support is not analyzed.
The purpose of providing psychological support with the use of LEGO construction sets is to create social and psychological conditions for a shoolchild’s individual development, which ensure the the development of competencies while having classes with LEGO.
Psychological support is implemented in the aspect of prevention, diagnosis, correction and development in order to provide psychological assistance to the educational process participants. The complex application of psychological support trends makes it possible to study a child’s abilities and the dynamics of a child’s development, to ensure competencies development.
Thus, an individual’s psychological support in the context of competency-based approach is carried out on the basis of the proposed structural and functional model of key competencies formation while using LEGO construction sets. The prospect for further research from the standpoint of competency-based approach is determining socio-psychological conditions for the development of a person’s creative and critical thinking.
Keywords: psychological support, LEGO construction set, competency-base approach, competency, structural and functional model of pupils’ key competencies formation.


Problem statement. One of the key trends of the National Strategy for the Development of Education in Ukraine is the modernization of education structure, content and organization on the basis of competency-based approach. The National system of education is grounded on the competency-oriented basis, aimed at comprehensive assimilation of professional knowledge and methods of practical activity.
          The competency-based strategy meets today’s requirements and is consistent with the educational institutions educational process organization. The competency-based approach forms the basis for the new law “On Education” in which a “competency” is defined as “a dynamic combination of knowledge, skills, habits, ways of thinking, views, values, and other personal qualities that affect a person's ability to socialize successfully, to carry out professional or further educational activities” [8].
Relevance of the research. The relevance of the research is preconditioned by the current needs in the educational space, the search for effective methods and techniques of pupils’ important competencies formation. The reformation of present-day education is accompanied by the introduction of new special forms of cognitive activity organization which have a specific purpose that is to create such learning conditions, under which a pupil will study successfully, develop his/her intellect and will be ready for creative self-realization. The educators are faced with a complicated task of forming an individual who is competent in various fields of activity. While being educated a child must obtain a certain set of characteristics, which will ensure his / her ability to find the way in a modern society, to quickly react to today’s requirements.
 Psychological-pedagogical and methodological literature explores the techniques which contribute to competencies development. The use of LEGO construction sets in the system of a person’s psychological support is, in our opinion, among such techniques.
    LEGO construction sets offers great possibilities:
1)    psychological and pedagogical: the development of different types of readiness for receiving school education; ensuring adaptation to schooling; broadening pupils’ outlook in different areas; the development of pupils’ outlook in different areas; the development of schoolchildren’s individuality considering their psychological and physiological characteristics; teaching learning skills; independence formation; creativity development.
2) educational possibilities: their use during the lessons in mathematics, native language and English; natural sciences to solve such educational and training problems as: mastering the ways of solving mathematical tasks and understanding mathematical phenomena; mastering mathematical skills and competencies; learning the principles of working of different mechanisms and devices, as well as mastering physical laws and phenomena; the formation of skills of asking questions and making conclusions about the environment; literacy development; getting acquainted with farming; finding out about professions; learning about engineering design; understanding and getting familiar with different cultures, age and gender differences between people; learning about people’s behaviour in a society and the ways of spending free time; getting familiar with people’s existing social roles in a society.
A lot of attention in scientific literature is paid to the peculiarities of organizing and conducting classes using LEGO. However, the problem of psychological support is not analyzed.
The analysis of recent research and publications.
There are different approaches to the concept of “psychological support” in the national psychology and pedagogy. I. Bekh, M. Bitianova, L. Mishchyk, O. Vietrova [1,2,7] emphasize that psychological support is a system of a psychologist’s and a teacher’s professional activities aimed at creating special conditions for a child’s comprehensive development and successful learning in the specific educational environment.
Zinchenko V.M. [6], in his turn, identifies psychological support with the methods and forms of education and instruction, namely:
•    the method of solving the problems of a child’s development by encouraging his / her independent activity;
•    the method which will ensure creating conditions for an educational subject’s making optimal decisions in different situations of life choices;
•    the method of active, dynamic monitoring the development of educational space subjects aimed at an early detection of developmental disabilities and providing qualified complex assistance to a child, family and educational institution employees.
We consider psychological support as a system of organizational, diagnostic, corrective and preventive measures considering a pupil’s age and individual characteristics.
The purpose of providing psychological support with the use of LEGO construction sets is to create social and psychological conditions for a shoolchild’s individual development, which ensure the the development of competencies while having classes with LEGO.
The principles of psychological support include: scientific character (performing activities based on the achievements of modern science using diagnostic methods); humanization (creating favourable conditions for a person’s harmonious development); sensitivity (considering age periodization while developing certain types of mental activity); individual approach (considering individual rates and trends of a child’s and a teacher’s personality development); activity-based approach (the study of pupils’ and teachers’ personalities while doing some activites); systematic character (the study of phenomena in the system of psychological and pedagogical process and the combination of interaction between the subjects of pedagogical process); cooperation (a teacher and a child solve a personal, educational or life problem together).
Psychological support is implemented in the aspect of prevention, diagnosis, correction and development in order to provide psychological assistance to the educational process participants. The complex application of psychological support trends makes it possible to study a child’s abilities and the dynamics of a child’s development, to ensure competencies development.
Revealing the content and modelling the process of key competencies formation are described in the works by V.Bolotov, H. Danylova, V.Zabolotnyi, V. Sierikov and others.
The analysis of the research works points to the fact that the process of formation of pupils’ key competencies in the educational process is distinguished by its fragmentary character. This is explained by the distinction of key competencies according to the content and uncertainty in the system of education on the application of competency-based approach.
The competency-based strategy meets today’s requirements and is consistent with the organization of primary education teaching and learning processes. The competency-based approach is at the core of the State Standard of Primary General Education, in which the key competencies are determined as the basis for societal self-realization, successful organization of one's life.
Main material presentation. Using construction sets in the context of competency-based approach requires the sufficient level of important competencies formation: life, educational and cognitive, communicative, social, creative copetencies. Therefore, the purpose of a competency-based approach is to organize the educational process aimed at developing such personal qualities that will help children in the future.
            The main key competencies are:
    Life competency is a person’s knowledge, abilities, life experience, his or her creative abilities, which are necessary for solving life tasks. It is the realization of an individual’s life project. I. Yermakov and H. Nesen point out that life competency is a complex entity that encompasses: knowledge, abilities and skills; life-creating abilities; life experience; a person’s life achievements; the ability to find one’s way in social situations; the ability to choose adequate and effective ways of solving life’s problems; the knowledge of one’s own personal qualities, advantages and disadvantages; self-improvement ability; ability to understand and correctly evaluate other people, establish adequate forms of communication with them, show tolerance in relationships; ability to manage oneself and the circumstances of one’s life; a person’s ability to live (the ability to live in a society and act accordingly) [5].
         Educational and cognitive competency is a set of a pupil’s competencies in the field of independent cognitive activity, which includes the elements of logical, methodological, general educational activity, correlated with the real objects of cognition; knowledge and ability of goal-setting, planning, reflection, self-assessment of educational and cognitive activities.
    The formation of pupils’ educational and cognitive competency is an important and complex task, on which a person’s ability for intellectual development, for independent cognitive activity, for personal educational process organization, selection and use of effective learning strategies depends.
            Social competency is an individual’s ability to work productively with different partners in a group or in a team, to perform different roles and functions in a team. It is aimed at enhancing a person’s general culture, ability to cooperate, self-realization and self-determination.
     Communicative competency is interpreted as a person’s ability to apply knowledge of the language in a particular communication, the ways of interaction with close and distant people and events, skills of working in a group, performing various social roles. This competency allows a pupil to overcome psychological barriers in communication, express his / her own opinion and create a positive atmosphere for communication.
Creative competency is the knowledge, abilities, skills, and attitudes, necessary for a person’s successful creative activity, and the opportunity to use them in life, in practice. It is defined as a person’s ability to generate ideas, put forward hypotheses; the ability to fantasize; the ability for associative thinking; the ability to see contradictions; the ability to transfer knowledge and skills to new situations; the ability to reject an obsession, to overcome the inertia of thinking; independence of judgments; critical thinking [4, p.32].
A creative child is able to solve a variety of problems in an unconventional, original way.
To develop a model for key competencies formation, it is necessary to summarize the results of theoretical and empirical studies [9, 11], to determine its main components and  operation conditions, features and characteristics of the above-mentioned process. That is why the components of the proposed model are aimed at the comprehensive development of a child’s personality, reflecting the unity and sequence of processes and methods that ensure primary school educational process realization.
Singling out the components of a model made it possible to break it into blocks: a target block, a content block, an organizational block, a functional block and a resulting block. This allowed us to picture an intentional process of relevant key competencies formation.
A target block. A target block is connected with realizing a specific purpose, that is pupils’ key competencies formation. In order to achieve the goal, the tasks using LEGO construction sets for the development of children’s critical and creative thinking, creative orientation and stimulating them to self-development were developed.
A content block. The competency-based approach enables to organize the educational process and direct it towards the formation of such key competencies that will help students find their place in life. The list of key educational competencies is determined on the basis of the main purposes of general education and the main pupils’ activities which enable them to acquire social experience, obtain life skills and skills of practical activity in a modern society [9]. Accordingly, to achieve this goal, pair and group tasks to be done with the construction sets were offered.
An organizational block. The formation of pupils’ key competencies should be based on the fundamental principles of education: systematic and integral character, correspondence to nature, culture, humanism and vitality. The implementation of these principles means taking into account a child’s age and individual psychological characteristics.
Psychological support is important. It involves dynamic observation of the development of a child’s cognition, feelings and emotions. The purpose of psychological support is to maintain mental and psycho-physical health, to prevent and overcome any deviations in personal development, to promote the process of socialization and social values assimilation and mechanisms of life-creation [1, 2, 10].
Psychological support of a child’s development occurs in the context of the main idea of the conception of competency-based learning. Therefore, the purpose of the proposed lessons with the use of LEGO construction sets is aimed at modelling life situations, using role games and joint creative problem solving.
A functional block. The proposed model allows us to distinguish the following functions of the process of children’s key competencies formation: an educational function – teaching pupils on the basis of the scientific research programmes, gaining new knowledge; a formative function - promotes the formation of children’s life attitudes and principles, social norms, values, standards of creative activity; a creative and development function - promotes the development of creative and critical thinking, the formation of research abilities and skills, the realization of individual creative interests and needs; an innovative function – contributes to the formation of an individual’s creative orientation and the possibility of adaptation to the new conditions of life creation; a diagnostic function – the development and introduction of diagnostics of the level of schoolcholdren’s key competencies formation. The block involves using LEGO construction sets in class.
A resulting block. The structural and functional model of pupils’ key competencies formation is realized through the monitoring process, that is constant observation of the research process aimed at revealing its compliance with the predicted result, which allows monitoring changes in the levels of key competencies formation.
         Conclusions. Thus, an individual’s psychological support in the context of competency-based approach is carried out on the basis of the proposed structural and functional model of key competencies formation while using LEGO construction sets. The prospect for further research from the standpoint of competency-based approach is determining socio-psychological conditions for the development of a person’s creative and critical thinking.

Література
1.     Бех І. Д. (2004). Психологічний супровід особистісно зорієнтованого виховання.  Початкова школа, 3, 3-6.
2.     Битянова М.Р. (1998).  Организация психологической службы в школе.- М.: Совершенство.
3.     Великий тлумачний словник сучасної української мови (з дод. І допов.) / Уклад. і гол. ред. В.Т. Бусел.  К.; Ірпінь: ВТФ «Перун», 2005. 1728 с.
4.    Гуманізація процесу навчання в школі: Навчальний посібник /за ред. С.П.Бондар.  2-ге вид., доповн.  К.: Стислос, 2001.  256 с.
5.    Життєва компетентність особистості: науково-методичний посібник  / за ред. Л. В. Сохань, І. Г. Єрмакова, Г. М. Несен. К.: Богдана,2003.520 с.
6.     Зінченко В.М. (2004).  Організація психолого-педагогічного супроводу дитини в умовах дошкільного закладу. Дошкільна освіта, 1, 15-17.
7.    Міщик Л. (2011). Соціально-педагогічний супровід обдарованої молоді у вищих навчальних закладах. –C.: Вища школа.
8.    Про освіту : Закон України від 05.09.2017 р. № 2145-VIII. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2145-19.
9.    Савченко О. Я. (2011). Компетентнісний підхід як чинник якості професійної підготовки майбутнього вчителя. Формування ключових і предметних компетентностей молодших школярів у навчальному процесі: теоретичні аспекти.-  Донецьк : Каштан.
10.     Слободенюк Л. І.(2009). Психологічний супровід у школі: мета, завдання, функції . Шкільному психологу. Усе для роботи, 10, 2-5.
11.     Хуторской А. В.(2006). Технология проектирования ключевых и предметных компетенций. - М. : ГНУ ИСМО РАО.

Bibliography
1.     Bekh I. D. (2004). Psykholohichnyy suprovid osobystisno zoriyentovanoho vykhovannya.  Pochatkova shkola, 3, 3-6.  
2.     Bytyanova M.R. (1998).  Orhanyzatsyya psykholohycheskoy sluzhby v shkole.- M.: Sovershenstvo.
3.     Velykyy tlumachnyy slovnyk suchasnoyi ukrayinsʹkoyi movy (z dod. I dopov.) / Uklad. i hol. red. V.T. Busel.  K.; Irpinʹ: VTF «Perun», 2005. 1728 s.
4.    Humanizatsiya protsesu navchannya v shkoli: Navchalʹnyy posibnyk /za red. S.P.Bondar.  2-he vyd., dopovn.  K.: Styslos, 2001.  256 s.
5.    Zhyttyeva kompetentnistʹ osobystosti: naukovo-metodychnyy posibnyk  / za red. L. V. Sokhanʹ, I. H. Yermakova, H. M. Nesen. K.: Bohdana,2003.520 s.
6.     Zinchenko V.M. (2004).  Orhanizatsiya psykholoho-pedahohichnoho suprovodu dytyny v umovakh doshkilʹnoho zakladu. Doshkilʹna osvita, 1, 15-17.
7.    Mishchyk L. (2011). Sotsialʹno-pedahohichnyy suprovid obdarovanoyi molodi u vyshchykh navchalʹnykh zakladakh. –C.: Vyshcha shkola.
8.    Pro osvitu : Zakon Ukrayiny vid 05.09.2017 r. № 2145-VIII. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2145-19.
9.    Savchenko O. YA. (2011). Kompetentnisnyy pidkhid yak chynnyk yakosti profesiynoyi pidhotovky maybutnʹoho vchytelya. Formuvannya klyuchovykh i predmetnykh kompetentnostey molodshykh shkolyariv u navchalʹnomu protsesi: teoretychni aspekty.-  Donetsʹk : Kashtan.
10.     Slobodenyuk L. I.(2009). Psykholohichnyy suprovid u shkoli: meta, zavdannya, funktsiyi . Shkilʹnomu psykholohu. Use dlya roboty.  10, 2-5.
11.     Khutorskoy A. V.(2006). Tekhnolohyya proektyrovanyya klyuchevykh y predmetnykh kompetentsyy. - M. : HNU YSMO RAO.
Lego construction sets as a means of primary schoolchildren's critical thinking development
І Дорожко, Л Туріщева - Вісник ХНПУ імені ГС Сковороди" Психология", 2020, 61, 71-80.
Lego construction sets as a means of primary schoolchildren's critical thinking development
I Dorozhko, L Turishcheva - Visnyk KHNPU imeni HS Skovorody" Psykholohyya", 2020, 61, 71-80.

 

Завантажити Психологічний супровід